Cells and tissues are active materials. They are deformable and compressible, and can generate forces to affect their environment. Changes in deformability and cell forces may have significant implications in health and disease. We are investigating effects of trabecular meshwork stiffnes on outflow facility and intraocular pressure and how changes in tissue stiffness are related to glaucoma. We have also developed a growth force microscopy technique to investigate mechanisms of growth force generation and how the forces can influence cells and tissue physiology/pathophysiology.